London Journal of Social Sciences https://londonic.uk/js/index.php/ljbeh <p>London Journal of Social Sciences is a refereed academic journal. The Journal publishes research articles in the field of socal sciences and related fields. The main objective of the Journal is to provide an intellectual platform for scholars, a platform in which research in alternative paradigms in social sciences and humanities could be presented and debated.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Semiannual-</strong><strong>Online</strong></p> UKEY Consultancy & Publishing in the United Kingdom en-US London Journal of Social Sciences 2754-7671 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/">CC Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0</a></p> Effect of external debt on expected years of schooling: The case of Nigeria and Ghana https://londonic.uk/js/index.php/ljbeh/article/view/66 <p>This study investigates the effect of public debt on expected years of schooling in Nigeria and Ghana using annual time series data from 1990 to 2019 sourced from World Bank, and United Nations Development Programme. Trend analysis was done for external debt stock and expected years of schooling variables. Other variables in the study are external debt servicing stock and real effective exchange rate. Pre-econometric test for unit root was undertaken using Phillips-Perron and Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test methods. Econometric test for long run cointegration was undertaken using long run form and bounds test method within the ARDL framework. The long run cointegration test showed absence of long run cointegration among the variables for Nigeria, but there was long run cointegration among the variables for Ghana. The test for causality using Granger causality showed unidirectional causality from expected years of schooling to external debt stock for Ghana. In both countries, borrowing for infrastructural projects is prioritized over borrowing for investment in social sectors. Even where there is an investment in the social sector using external debt, it is not enough to create a significant effect. As recommendation from the findings, external debt should be used to improve expected years of schooling as much as it is used for infrastructural investment. This is because of the importance of developing the manpower that will manage the infrastructure that is financed by external debt.</p> Veronica Brendan Edeminam Osman Nuri Aras Copyright (c) 2022 Veronica Brendan Edeminam, Osman Nuri Aras https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 2 3 1 18 10.31039/ljss.2022.3.66 Physical working environment and welfare facilities related factors causing heavy workload: an empirical study among sanitary workers https://londonic.uk/js/index.php/ljbeh/article/view/71 <p>This survey, quantitative and empirical based descriptive research has the objective of analysing the perception of sanitary workers working in private multi-speciality hospitals in Tirunelveli city of Tamil Nadu, India towards various physical working environment and welfare facilities related factors causing heavy workload.&nbsp; In order to achieve this objective, the study has sampled 80 respondents using both convenience and judgement sampling techniques; and from the chosen respondents the primary data were collected using schedule method with the help of questionnaire (translating the questions in respondents’ mother language, ‘Tamil’) along with interview.&nbsp; The secondary data were collected from journals, conference proceedings and government websites to add appropriate significance to the study.&nbsp; Percentage method has been administered to analyse both demographic characteristics of the study and perception of the respondents towards physical working environment and welfare facilities related factors causing heavy workload.&nbsp; The result of the analysis has discovered that majority of the respondents strongly agreed that the factors: location of the hospital and absence of transport facilities by the hospital, distance between departments and garbage storage, lack of technical support to transport garbage and disposal wastes, not allowed to use the life and need to use the steps compulsorily, complex layout of both the departments and the entire hospital, and size of the hospital are associated with heavy workload under physical working environment related factors.&nbsp; Similarly, majority of the respondents have agreed that the factors: absence of accommodation facilities to stay, absence of dedicated break areas and dress changing room, absence of convenience facilities (drinking water and separate toilet), absence of maternity related aids (crèche and feeding room), and no free lunch or no food with concession rate under welfare facilities related factors.</p> Durairaj Rajan Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 2 3 19 52 10.31039/ljss.2022.3.71