London Journal of Social Sciences 2021-07-31T00:00:00+03:00 Omer Farooq Open Journal Systems <p>London Journal of Social Sciences is a refereed academic journal. The Journal publishes research articles in the field of socal sciences and related fields. The main objective of the Journal is to provide an intellectual platform for scholars, a platform in which research in alternative paradigms in social sciences and humanities could be presented and debated.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Semiannual-</strong><strong>Online</strong></p> Digital? Local? Transparent? – Six truths of supply chains after Covid-19 2021-06-22T22:39:22+03:00 Christina Schabasser <p>Supply chains were and always will be exposed to risks. The increasing complexity of today´s supply chains pose the greatest challenges to supply chain management. Disruptions of the supply chain caused by disasters (e.g., the Covid-19 pandemic) indicates that the inter-organizational interaction between purchasing, production and logistics on a mostly global level does not work as smoothly as assumed. Although, there were serious disasters with dire effects on global supply chains even before Covid-19, supply chains have hardly lost any of their complexity or gained in transparency. Therefore, it is important to address this issue with the utmost urgency to make supply chains more resilient. The article aims to answer the question how the supply chains of the future could look like. Six levers for restructuring or redesigning supply chains are presented in this paper, for example, higher safety stocks and a diversified supplier portfolio. Even if the supply chains known to us will not cease to exist, current practices will certainly be reassessed. A conceptual model and its visualization opportunities is used to illustrate how a supply chain is skipped out of balance. It forces the reader to think about solutions to stabilize supply chains, resulting in a new (extended or deeper) understanding of phenomena for interested people, supply chain managers, practitioners, and researchers in this field.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Christina Schabasser Musical Instruments Sound Classification using GMM 2021-06-20T00:29:33+03:00 Prabhu Kumar Aurchana S. Prabavathy <p>Classification is the task of assigning objects to one of several predefined categories. In today’s decade classifying the musical signal from large data is a major task; the proposed work classifies the music into their respective classes. In this paper, the sound of the musical instruments classified automatically from the musical signals. Mel frequency cepstral coefficient is used as a feature extractor and the machine learning model namely Gaussian Mixture Model is used for classification. This system tested in ten different classes of musical instrument sound from two different instrument families such as Woodwind and Brass instruments. In this proposed work, the result yields satisfactory accuracy in the classification of musical instruments sound.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prabhu Kumar Aurchana, S. Prabavathy Forensic Analysis of the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the South African Economy 2021-06-22T23:48:48+03:00 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu <p>The World economic activities were brought to a standstill in late 2019 through 2020 without a single gunshot but caused by a global pandemic called “Covid-19”. Sadly, the root causes or origin of this pandemic is yet unknown despite all efforts by the World Health Organisation and other relevant authorities. Covid-19 has caused an unquantifiable economic damage more than expected in South Africa. It affected all facets of its economic system ranging from stock market, tourism industry, production industry e-tal. Global demand for South African export products fell by 14% of its GDP in the Q2 of 2020. Most major economies in the World lost more than 4% of their gross domestic product in 2020 and many countries entered recession due to the covid-19 pandemic. This pandemic has caused both hyperinflation and high rate of unemployment in South Africa. Data from 1960 shows that the second quarter of 2020 experienced a greater fall in GDP than the annualised decline of 6.1% in the first quarter of 2009 during the global financial crisis and was “far steeper than the annualised 8.2% decline in the fourth quarter of 1982”. Overall, South African economy is still bedevilling/suffering from the collateral damages caused by covid-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu How Fair is Education Policy in Albania? 2021-06-23T14:16:04+03:00 Albana Cekrezi <p>Democracy, although a highly debated concept, preserves its identity in the values upon which it is founded. These values give universality to democracy, are normative and define democracy. Fairness is considered as one of the standard values of democracy. It is seen as justice, social justice and as equality. Fairness is highly discussed from the prospect of distributive justice. As injustice comes from unfair distribution of resources, the criteria over which this distribution is done is important. Three are the main principles based on which fair distribution is conducted: equality; everyone receives the same resource; equity, resource is distributed based on merit, work, talent; need, resource is distributed based on what individuals need. The development of political culture is the bridge that links fairness with citizens. Education stands as an important tool that influences political culture. At the same time, it is one of the spheres where to notice issues of fairness. In education, a top-down analysis of fairness necessitates the examination of education policy. The driving research question has been to examine how education policy in Albania reflects issues of fairness. It brings results from the analysis of formal documents representing education policy. Content analysis has been used as a method aiming to filter these documents for issues related to fairness.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Albana Cekrezi The Impact of African Continental Free Trade agreement 2021-06-23T00:14:04+03:00 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu <p>The birth of African Continental Free Trade agreement which came into effect on the 1<sup>st</sup> of January 2021, has a huge positive impact on the continent. The implementation has brought about enormous economic growth in African countries. African Continental Free Trade agreement is the World largest trade bloc since the creation of World Trade Organisation in 1994. It has united 1.3billion people and with annual trade potential of over $4trillion. The implementation of AfCFTA has increased the movement of people across the subregion ahead of the planned/envisaged introduction of continental passport. In all paradigms, AfCFTA has unlocked the growth and development potentials tied down for decades. This is a gigantic step toward the actualisation of the four-cardinal principle/pillar laid down by the founding fathers of the African Union, which are: Economic, political, social, and technological integration. The unity of African countries depends solely on their economic integration brought about by the implement of AfCFTA. This is the vehicle that will take African continent out of the abject poverty, under-development, and low standard of living. The free trade agreement is a win-win for all the African countries. It has boosted, trading activities, production capacity, employment aggregate and income gains on the continent.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu Impact of Migration on Personal Portrait of Migrants 2021-06-23T13:08:33+03:00 R. Malini A. Ayisha <p>The home and homeland of every living being is the safe and secure place to live in. In order to uphold their standard of living, people emigrate from their country and immigrate to other countries. The standard of living largely endorsed by personal portrait of migrants. This phenomenon induces the researchers to analyse the impact of migration on personal portraits of the migrants in pre and post migration. The analysis done on the basis of primary data collected from 520 Indian Muslim Migrants from Tamil Nadu by adopting snow ball non- probability sampling. The responses of migrants regarding their self portrait before and after migration tested with the help of paired “t” test. The notable changes have been identified in migrants’ Personal Grooming, Communication, Preference of Food, Eating Habit and Smartness. Besides, the result revealed that migrants’ looked their unhealthy behaviour such as smoking, consuming of alcohol and drugs as habits. The migrants should strengthen the positive impact on self portrait to heal self and become the best human capital for the home land and the country they live. Besides, they should wane their unhealthy behaviour to become role model for the potential migrants of homeland.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. Malini, A. Ayisha Improving Teachers’ Professionalism Through Blended-Based Training in Indonesia's Remote Area 2021-06-23T12:32:59+03:00 Albert Efendi Pohan Hilman Mudawali Daulay Agus Sahrir <p>Blended-based training is a best alternative choice for equalization of training in Indonesia’s district area in the Covid-19 pandemic era considering the low competency of teachers in Indonesia at this time. This research was applied on improving the teachers’ professionalism in Indonesia’s remote area in order to act their main roles on preparing the learning administration. The research method used was experimental research by one-group pre-test and post-test design. Research subject were from normative and adaptive teacher at in remote areas of North Sumatera Province in Indonesia with 31 teachers. The instrument which used was portfolio and individual test by writing the lesson plan and all tasks collected by google drive. The data analysis technique was performed using SPSS Statistic 20 by one simple paired t-test. The result of this study showed that blended-based training could improve the teachers’ profesionalism where the significan value (2-tailed) was 0.00 &lt; 0.05. It mean that there was a significant difference of values where the post-test score was bigger than the pre-test score.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Albert Efendi Pohan, Hilman Mudawali Daulay, Agus Sahrir Economic Impact of Diaspora Remittance on Nigerian Economy 2021-06-23T00:19:38+03:00 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu <p>The purpose of this paper is to assess the huge impact of Diaspora remittance on the Nigerian economy. In 2018, migrant remittances to Nigeria were $24.3 billion, representing 6.1% of gross domestic product. This figure represents 83% of the Federal Government budget in 2018 and 11 times the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows in same period. Remittances are the fastest growing source of foreign exchange earnings in Nigeria. Hence in March 2021, as part of its reforms to boost the inflow of foreign currency in the country, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) introduced an incentive of N5 for every $1 of fund remitted to Nigeria through International Money Transfer Organisations in its forex policy. Remittances, or money transfers, make up the second-largest source of foreign exchange receipts after oil revenue in Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy. $24.8billion was sent to Nigeria in 2019, according to the World Bank data.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Benedict Ebenezer Alechenu The State of Education and Artificial Intelligence After the Pandemic 2021-06-26T22:04:26+03:00 Ibrahim Eren Bisen Fatih Nalcaci Sriram Alagappan Yetkin Yildirim <p>The neologism of artificial intelligence and machine learning brought a myriad of conveniences and advantages into the education sector. These new and improved technologies have the potential to be the remedies to the predicaments that have emerged from the rapid transition into online learning and the problems that have existed with traditional learning. These predicaments vary from personalized learning experiences, administrative busy works, to increased overall student interaction. This article explores how artificial intelligence became the new normal in education and the recently revealed benefits of artificial intelligence and machine learning in developing automated solutions to these predicaments such as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), dynamic schedules, automated grading, and increased personalized student interaction through chat-bots. Along with these solutions, some of the economical advancements that these technologies will bring include new research and investments in AI development, data collection and understanding, and increased jobs. These advancements are on a massive scale and will need to be addressed. By accommodating our resources into the advancements in this area we can make our education more versatile, engaging, and inclusive.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrahim Eren Bisen, Fatih Nalcaci, Sriram Alagappan, Yetkin Yildirim Organization Structure and Management Practice Related Factors Causing Heavy Workload: An Empirical Study Among Sanitary Workers 2021-07-08T23:33:34+03:00 Durairaj Rajan <p>This survey, quantitative and empirical based descriptive research has the objective of analysing perception of sanitary workers working in private multi-speciality hospitals in Tirunelveli city of Tamil Nadu, India towards various organization structure and management practice related factors causing heavy workload. In order to achieve the objective, the study sampled 80 respondents using both convenience and judgement sampling techniques; and from the chosen respondents the primary data were collected using schedule method with the help of questionnaire (translating the questions in respondents’ mother language, ‘Tamil’) along with interview.&nbsp; The secondary data were collected from books, journals and conference proceedings to add appropriate significance to the study. Percentage method was administered to analyse both demographic characteristics of the study and perception of the respondents towards role and compensation related factors causing heavy workload.&nbsp; The result of the analysis has discovered that all the factors discussed in this study: complex organization structure; not communicating the objectives of the task and its importance towards organization to the sanitary workers; orientation and clear communication about work processes; lack of participation at departmental and organizational level decision making; frequent changes made in the organization and inadequate information about them; inadequate welfare facilities for sanitary workers; autocratic leadership style with lack of motivation; inadequate respect for sanitary workers and huge discrimination; and low and unfair salary system; discrimination in salary and other benefits were strongly agreed by majority of the respondents.&nbsp; The study has given suitable suggestions as to how to rationalize the organization structure and management practice related factors causing heavy workload.</p> 2021-07-08T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Durairaj Rajan