The State of Education and Artificial Intelligence After the Pandemic
Keywords:education, artificial intelligence, machine learning, intelligent tutoring systems, Chat-bots, dynamic schedules, automated grading, I-it, I-thou, educational data, learning management systems, emergency online learning, remote learning, personalized learning
The neologism of artificial intelligence and machine learning brought a myriad of conveniences and advantages into the education sector. These new and improved technologies have the potential to be the remedies to the predicaments that have emerged from the rapid transition into online learning and the problems that have existed with traditional learning. These predicaments vary from personalized learning experiences, administrative busy works, to increased overall student interaction. This article explores how artificial intelligence became the new normal in education and the recently revealed benefits of artificial intelligence and machine learning in developing automated solutions to these predicaments such as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), dynamic schedules, automated grading, and increased personalized student interaction through chat-bots. Along with these solutions, some of the economical advancements that these technologies will bring include new research and investments in AI development, data collection and understanding, and increased jobs. These advancements are on a massive scale and will need to be addressed. By accommodating our resources into the advancements in this area we can make our education more versatile, engaging, and inclusive.
AI Grading Tool - Online Grade Calculator for Essays, Tests | Copyleaks. (2020). CopyLeaks. https://copyleaks.com/education/ai-grading
Artificial Intelligence Spending Quick Look: U.S. Buying Behavior by Industry, Company Size, and LOB Versus IT, 2020. (2020). IDC: The Premier Global Market Intelligence Company. https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=US47016420
AZoRobotics. (2020, November 2). Study of Students’ Perception of AI Teachers Could Help Design Better Ones. AZoRobotics.Com. https://www.azorobotics.com/News.aspx?newsID=11758
Beentjes, J. W., & van der Voort, T. H. (1993). Television viewing versus reading: Mental effort, retention, and inferential learning. Communication Education, 42(3), 191-205.
Bellman, R. (1978). An introduction to artificial intelligence: can computer think? (No. 04; Q335, B4.).
Chace, C. (2020, October 29). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Education. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/calumchace/2020/10/29/the-impact-of-artificial-intelligence-on-education/
Chen, N., Christensen, L., Gallagher, K., Mate, R., & Rafert, G. (2016). Global economic impacts associated with artificial intelligence. Analysis Group.
Ernst, E. (2019). EconStor: Economics of artificial intelligence: Implications for the future of work. Econstor. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/222165
Furman, J., & Seamans, R. (2019). AI and the Economy. Innovation policy and the economy, 19(1), 161-191.
George, D., Strauss, V., Meckler, L., Heim, J., & Natanson, H. (2021, March 15). How the pandemic is reshaping education. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2021/03/15/pandemic-school-year-changes/
Gillham, J., Rimmington, L., Dance, H., Verweij, G., Rao, A., Roberts, K. B., & Paich, M. (2018). The macroeconomic impact of artificial intelligence. PwC Report-PricewaterhouseCoopers.-2018.
Grother, P. J. (1995). NIST special database 19. Handprinted forms and characters database, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 10.
Guilherme, A. (2017, February 4). AI and education: the importance of teacher and student relations. AI & SOCIETY. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00146-017-0693-8?error=cookies_not_supported&code=193623eb-42fe-4e5d-a5bf-8c60742c2694
Gulzar, Z., & Leema, A. A. (2021). Machine Learning Approaches for Improvising Modern Learning Systems (Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design) (1st ed.). IGI Global.
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
Holmes, W., Anastopoulou, S., Schaumburg, H., & Mavrikis, M. (2018). Technology-enhanced personalised learning: Untangling the evidence.
Holmes, W., Bialik, M., & Fadel, C. (2019). Artificial intelligence in education. Boston: Center for Curriculum Redesign.
Holstein, K. (2018, June 27). Student Learning Benefits of a Mixed-Reality Teacher Awareness Tool in. SpringerLink. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-93843-1_12?error=cookies_not_supported&code=34f1edc8-5245-48f7-a050-a4412dc71499
Hussain, M. (2018, October 2). Student Engagement Predictions in an e-Learning System and Their Impact on Student Course Assessment Scores. Hindawi. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2018/6347186/
Kim, J., Merrill, K., Xu, K., & Sellnow, D. D. (2020). My teacher is a machine: Understanding students’ perceptions of AI teaching assistants in online education. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36(20), 1902-1911.
León, R. (2021, March 31). Coursera closes up 36%, topping $5.9 billion market cap in Wall Street debut. Retrieved June 17, 2021, from https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/31/coursera-ipo-cour-begins-trading-on-the-nyse.html
Luckin, R., Holmes, W., Griffiths, M., & Forcier, L. B. (2016). Intelligence unleashed: An argument for AI in education.
Lynch, L. (2021, February 4). 4 Ways Machine Learning Can Improve Online Education. LearnDash. https://www.learndash.com/4-ways-machine-learning-can-improve-online-education/
McDermott, J. (1982). R1: A rule-based configurer of computer systems. Artificial intelligence, 19(1), 39-88.
Mayzenberg, A. (2021, June 3). Accepting and Adapting to a New Normal for School. CollegeXpress. https://www.collegexpress.com/articles-and-advice/student-life/blog/accepting-and-adapting-new-normal-school/
Murphy, R. F. (2019, January 23). Artificial Intelligence Applications to Support Teachers. Rand. https://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE315.html
Nagao, M. (1986). Social and Economic Impacts of Artificial Intelligence-A Japanese Perspective. In Impacts of Artificial Intelligence (pp. 99-102).
Utoikamanu, F. (n.d.). Closing the Technology Gap in Least Developed Countries. United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/chronicle/article/closing-technology-gap-least-developed-countries.
Sandoval, Z. V. (2018). Design And Implementation of A Chatbot In Online Higher Education Settings.
Schellekens, P., & Sourrouille, D. M. (2020). COVID-19 mortality in rich and poor countries: a tale of two pandemics?. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (9260).
Soloviev, V. (2018). Machine learning approach for student engagement automatic recognition from facial expressions. SCIndeks. https://scindeks.ceon.rs/article.aspx?artid=2217-55391802079S
Soohoo, S. (2020, November). Artificial intelligence spending quick Look: U.S. buying behavior by industry, company size, and LOB Versus it, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.aws.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=US47016420
Szczepanski, M. (2019). Economic impacts of artificial intelligence (AI). European Parliamentary Research Service (PE 637.967).
Thomas (2020, October 23). Natural Language Processing Is Changing These 5 Industries. Fast Data Science. https://fastdatascience.com
UNESCO. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Education: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. Working Papers on Education Policy. http://repositorio.minedu.gob.pe/handle/MINEDU/6533
Vincent-Lancrin, S., & Van der Vlies, R. (2020). Trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) in education: Promises and challenges.
Wladawsky-Berger, I. (2018, November 16). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on the World Economy. Wall Street Journal.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrahim Eren Bisen, Fatih Nalcaci, Sriram Alagappan, Yetkin Yildirim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
CC Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0